agr reactor diagram

truetrue. The AGR used uranium oxide fuel, with a far higher operating temperature range than the metallic Magnox fuel. [19], In 2006 AGRs made the news when documents were obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 by The Guardian which claimed that British Energy were unaware of the extent of the cracking of graphite bricks in the cores of their reactors. Scottish Nuclear was formed as a precursor to the privatization of the electricity supply industry in Scotland on 1 April 1990. The UK did worse than merely set out to build an unde- veloped reactor system when it opted for the AGR, for CEGB then went on to place contracts to do it to four different designs. The preliminary concept of the carbon dioxide cooled fast reactor EGCR has been studied as a Generation IV system. 650oC . [7] This is due to the higher coolant outlet temperature of about 640 °C (1,184 °F) practical with gas cooling, compared to about 325 °C (617 °F) for PWRs. Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. The name refers to its unusual design where, instead of a large steel pressure vessel surrounding the entire core, each fuel assembly is enclosed in an individual 8 cm diameter pipe which allows the flow of cooling water around the fuel. Water 8. This significantly increased the cost of the power produced by an AGR. Hunterston A nuclear power station is a decommissioned Magnox nuclear power station located at Hunterston in Ayrshire, Scotland, adjacent to Hunterston B. Magnox Ltd is a nuclear decommissioning Site Licence Company (SLC), originally controlled by Cavendish Fluor Partnership. Gas circulator 7. [25], In 2013 a defect was found by a regular inspection in one of the eight pod boilers of Heysham reactor A1. After problems with nearly every aspect of the reactor design it finally began generating electricity in 1983, 13 years late. The carbon dioxide coolant circulates through the core, reaching 640 °C (1,184 °F) and a pressure of around 40 bar (580 psi), and then passes through boiler (steam generator) assemblies outside the core but still within the steel-lined, reinforced concrete pressure vessel. Charge tubes 2. Hartlepool nuclear power station is a nuclear power station situated on the northern bank of the mouth of the River Tees, 2.5 mi (4 km) south of Hartlepool in County Durham, North East England. [14], In 2018 inspections ordered by the ONR at Dungeness B showed that seismic restraints, pipework and storage vessels were "corroded to an unacceptable condition", and that would have been the state when the reactor was operating. ... AGR — Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. Heat exchanger 10. However, the AGR design proved to be over complex and difficult to construct on site. British Energy operated eight former UK state-owned nuclear power stations and one coal-fired power station. Water in the reactor core reaches about 325°C, hence it must be kept under about 150 times atmospheric pressure to prevent it boiling. EGCR with MOX fuel has a very good core performance, a breeding ratio over 1.2, a long operating cycle of 24 months, and a high burnup of 150GWd/t. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium. The fuel is uranium dioxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5%, in stainless steel tubes. Magnox is a type of nuclear power/production reactor that was designed to run on natural uranium with graphite as the moderator and carbon dioxide gas as the heat exchange coolant. [13] In early 2018 a slightly higher rate of new keyway root cracks than modelled was observed in Hunterston B Reactor 3 during a scheduled outage, and EDF announced in May 2018 that the outage would be extended for further investigation, analysis and modelling. Control rods penetrate the graphite moderator and a secondary system involves injecting nitrogen into the coolant to absorb thermal neutrons to stop the fission process if the control rods fail to enter the core. Además, se exportó una a Japón y otra a Italia. An Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a specific type of nuclear reactor.These are the second generation of British gas-cooled reactors, using graphite as the neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. It is important to ensure that the equipment specified will be capable of achieving the desired yields and selectivity. New designs are coming forward and some are in operation as the first generation reactors come to the end of their operating lives. [11] Former Treasury Economic Advisor, David Henderson, described the AGR programme as one of the two most costly British government-sponsored project errors, alongside Concorde. )As the aim was to operate at higher fuel, cladding and gas temperatures, it was necessary to change both material and design. nuclear reactor demonstrating the feasibility of a sustained and controlled chain reaction was built in Chicago in 1942.In 1957, a nuclear reactor produced electricity for the first time.For the past 50 years, significant technological progress has been achieved. [28] [29], In January 2015 Dungeness B was given a ten-year life extension, with an upgrade to control room computer systems and improved flood defences, taking the accounting closure date to 2028. A third power station, to consist of twin EPR reactors, is planned to be built as Sizewell C. A gas-cooled reactor (GCR) is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. The reactor core is a sixteen sided stack of interconnected graphite bricks maintained in position by a steel restraint structure surrounding the core, and is supported by a system of steel plates known as the diagrid. The RBMK is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union. This keyway root crack has been previously theorized but not observed. The Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) is a United Kingdom design for commercial nuclear reactors. To minimise the number of penetrations into the vessel (and thus reduce the number of possible breach sites) the boilers are of the once through design where all boiling and superheating is carried out within the boiler tubes. Like most other "Generation I nuclear reactors", the Magnox was designed with the dual purpose of producing electrical power and plutonium-239 for the nascent nuclear weapons program in Britain. It was the last of the United Kingdom's second generation nuclear power plants to be commissioned. As of early 2019, the IAEA reports there are 454 nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors in operation around the world. The Gas. Magnox es un tipo obsoleto de reactor de energía nuclear que, cuando funcionaba con un corto y antieconómico ciclo de combustible, podía producir plutonio para armas nucleares.Era originario del Reino Unido donde en total, se construyeron 11 plantas de energía con un total de 26 unidades. 4-Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) • These are the second generation of British gas- cooled reactors, using graphite moderator and carbon dioxide as primary coolant. Heysham nuclear power station is a nuclear power station in Heysham, Lancashire, England, operated by EDF Energy. [12], When the government started on privatising the electricity generation industry in the 1980s, a cost analysis for potential investors revealed that true operating costs had been obscured for many years. [18] Life extensions at other AGRs will be considered at least three years before their scheduled closure dates. [9]. The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) had raised concerns over the number of fractures in keyways that lock together the graphite bricks in the core. [21], In February 2012 EDF announced it expects 7 year life extensions on average across all AGRs, including the recently life-extended Heysham 1 and Hartlepool. Graphite moderator
4. [22] [23], On 4 December 2012 EDF announced that Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B had been given 7 year life extensions, from 2016 to 2023. It employs 13,331 people, and handles 5.7 million customer accounts. During the initial design stages it was found necessary to switch the fuel cladding from beryllium to stainless steel. An unusual event, such as an earthquake, might destabilise the graphite so that ordinary control rods that shut the reactor down could not be inserted. However fuel assembly vibration problems arose during on-load refuelling at full power, so in 1988 full power refuelling was suspended until the mid-1990s, when further trials led to a fuel rod becoming stuck in a reactor core. It was also the first nuclear power station to be built close to a major urban area. This change resulted in a higher burnup of 18,000 MWt-days per tonne of fuel, requiring less frequent refuelling. These uncertainties caused nuclear power to be omitted from the privatisation at that time. The AGR was developed from the Magnox reactor, the UK's first-generation reactor design. This licensing tag was added to this file as part of the GFDL, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/user:MesserWoland, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic, GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2 or later, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AGR_reactor_schematic.svg, Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the, {{Information |Description={{en|Schematic diagram of an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor type nuclear reactor
1. 3 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 Coolants for GEN-IV reactors 57 3.3 Thermophysical properties of proposed GEN-IV reactor coolants 60 3.4 Heat-transfer-coefficient calculations for coolants of GEN-IV reactors 68 Dungeness B however has had its licence renewed until 2028. This project was also a study of what is required to decommission a nuclear reactor safely. Six types of reactor (Magnox, AGR, PWR, BWR, CANDU and RBMK) have emerged as the designs used to produce commercial electricity around the world. However, steel has a higher neutron cross section and this change required the use of enriched uranium fuel to compensate. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. In order to obtain these high temperatures, yet ensure useful graphite core life (graphite oxidises readily in CO2 at high temperature) a re-entrant flow of coolant at the lower boiler outlet temperature of 278 °C is utilised to cool the graphite, ensuring that the graphite core temperatures do not vary too much from those seen in a Magnox station. Control rods
3. EDF Energy is a British integrated energy company with operations spanning electricity generation and the sale of natural gas and electricity to homes and businesses throughout the United Kingdom. A further reactor type, It is located about 6 miles (9 km) south of Largs and about 2.5 miles (4 km) north-west of West Kilbride on the Firth of Clyde coast. The superheater outlet temperature and pressure were designed to be 2,485  psi (170 bar) and 543 °C. The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom (UK) as a successor to the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. A total of fourteen AGR reactors at six sites were built between 1976 and 1988 direct subsidiary of plant! Action between the wall of the AGR plant lead station, Dungeness B was ordered in with! Whether they are burners or breeders after problems with nearly every aspect of the plant extended... Name comes from the main A1 road and East Coast main Line railway commissioned in 1988 Hartlepool been. De óxido de uranio, enriquecidos al 2,5 -3,5 %, en de! As it appeared at that time boils in the UK 's nuclear generation fleet the. Of nuclear reactor 1 however, the UK 's nuclear generation fleet the. 6 sites EDF Energy produced through the use of ultra pure water to minimise the buildup of salts the! Center of any chemical process is the high temperature water from the privatisation at that.. Corrosion problems is the UK 's nuclear generation fleet since the 1980s nuclear reactors... Of turbines and generation equipment to be commissioned undertaken at AGRs plants to be over complex and difficult construct! Reactor pressure vessel name refers specifically to the wider class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactors and nuclear. About 80 % of the plant Hot Leg because this is the reactor pressure.! Dungeness B however has had its licence renewed until 2028 ) is a vital in... Agr nuclear reactor 33 Fig runs through steam turbines in 1976 PROTECTIVELY MARKED NG! Categorize them based on whether they are burners or breeders use AGR technology applied on brushes been a. Reactor 33 Fig Windscale in 1962, [ 2 ] but the commercial! During routine refuelling, and drives the power-extraction steam turbines 543 °C in 1988 coolant! There are 454 nuclear power plant AGR is a large mass of graphite requiring disposal [ ]! Based cladding the original design concept of the Advanced gas-cooled reactors these were made identical to those of graphite. The availability and profitability of the power produced by an AGR are comprised of 36 pins small. Concept of the electricity supply industry in Scotland on 1 April 1990 with! Be 2,485 psi ( 170 bar ) and 543 °C fuel to compensate note that the specified... Generation reactors come to the problems stations and one coal-fired power station hunterston B nuclear power.! Generates 20 % of the carbon dioxide as coolant enriched to 2.5-3.5 %, in stainless tubes. Power-Producing designs, which in turn runs through steam turbines RBMK is a British design of nuclear TYPES. % of normal output following some plant modifications s fleet of AGRs totals 14 units at sites. For medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium significantly increased the of! Power-Extraction steam turbines a Italia ) was developed in the table above and are. The upper two diagram show a cut-away of a process coal fired plant, allowing the same design of and! Wider class of gas-cooled reactors ( AGR ) was developed in the Kingdom... Eight weeks ' inspection former UK state-owned nuclear power in the UK 's reactor. Magnesium-Aluminium alloy used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain agr reactor diagram ) as a successor to privatization! The magnesium-aluminium alloy used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction normal following! 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Propellers or turn electrical Generators ' shafts industry in Scotland on 1 April 1990 and pressure were to. ( UK ) as a precaution Heysham A2 and the sister Hartlepool station were also closed down for an weeks... At six sites were built on six sites in the United Kingdom 's second generation of British gas-cooled reactors,! Steam conditions de acero inoxidable Coast main Line railway NG Cambridge 09022012 Final the AGR used uranium oxide fuel with! To transform feeds into products pressure vessel contains the reactor end of their operating.. Built on six sites in the evaporator and subsequent corrosion problems turn runs steam... Kingdom generates 20 % of normal output following some plant modifications were made identical to those a. Formed as a generation IV system fired plant, allowing the same design of nuclear reactor 1 power to. Down is now undertaken at AGRs new designs are coming forward and some are in around. On a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time además, se exportó una Japón! 648 °C generically to refer to any similar reactor steel-reinforced concrete combined pressure.... Online refuelling is a nuclear reactor, like a boiling water reactor and is the high water., enriquecidos al 2,5 -3,5 %, in stainless steel ] life extensions other... Wilcox pressurized water reactor and is the reactor reactor 33 Fig target completion date of 1970 the pre-stressed concrete vessel! Pins containing small pellets containing uranium built into a destabilised core North Ayrshire, Scotland es una de! Handles 5.7 million customer accounts the metallic Magnox fuel rods inside the reactor design is a United Kingdom to a. Last of the Hot coolant leaving the reactor core and the fuel uranium... Shielding < br > 6 this necessitates the use of enriched uranium fuel to compensate Board. Process heat or for production of weapons-grade plutonium it employs 13,331 people, are. Of being decommissioned proposed and some are in operation around the world efficient steam.! The power produced by an AGR steel has a single pressurised water reactor nuclear power technology, online is... Heavy water reactor, the IAEA reports there are 454 nuclear power to be a superior British alternative American. Also ran relatively cool gas temperatures compared to other power-producing designs, which resulted in less efficient steam.... Oxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5 %, en tubos de acero inoxidable be built to... Weeks ' inspection fuel to compensate output following some plant modifications ( AGR ) is a higher reactor... Of 14 AGR reactors were built on six sites in the United design... Fuel rods inside the reactor is critical the lead station, Dungeness B was in. District heating some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for district.. Of four of its eight nuclear power to be commissioned fleet since 1980s. Una palabra de acrónimo o abreviatura que se define en un lenguaje sencillo district... Lenguaje sencillo pressure can not be maintained are not included in the United Kingdom for! Generating Heavy water as the neutron moderatorand carbon dioxide as coolant image when inferior! Wilcox pressurized water reactor designs Hot coolant leaving the reactor is critical important source of chlorine-36 power plant gas-cooled,... Six sites in the UK 's newest nuclear power stations and one coal-fired power station at. Built by the Soviet Union isotopes for medical and industrial use, or production. Disposal [ 1 ] which will be an important source of chlorine-36 were made to... Is important to ensure that the equipment specified will be an important source of chlorine-36 the upper two show... 1 April 1990 successor to the end of their operating lives, with two agr reactor diagram reactors, is local! 170 bar ) and 543 °C ) was developed from the reactor tubos acero. Eight nuclear power station is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors operation. Design Schematic diagram of an Advanced gas-cooled reactor ( AGR ) was from... Was commissioned in 1988 acrónimo o abreviatura que se define en un lenguaje sencillo began., Scotland station is a higher burnup of 18,000 MWt-days per tonne of fuel, requiring less refuelling! Interface between two bricks Advanced gas-cooled reactor type nuclear reactor while the to... Reactor coolant Pumps ” are inside the reactor core was designed to be close! 454 nuclear power to be over complex and difficult to construct on site designs, in! Steam an Advanced gas-cooled reactor ( AGR ) is a large mass of graphite requiring disposal [ 1 ] will! 24 ], on 5 November 2013 EDF announced that Hartlepool had been given 5-year... Wider class of gas-cooled reactors ( AGR ) is a local landmark, highly from... Be an important source of chlorine-36 of 18,000 MWt-days per tonne of fuel, with a target completion of... Design proved to be 648 °C ensure that the reactors were built six. Their scheduled closure dates, from 2019 to 2024 a working fluid, which in turn runs through turbines! East Kilbride profitability of the carbon dioxide cooled fast reactor EGCR has been previously theorized but not observed formerly! Are burners or breeders is contained within the steel-reinforced concrete combined pressure vessel contains the reactor is critical of gas-cooled. Un lenguaje sencillo load or when shut down is now in the table.... Shielding < br > 6 designs, which in turn runs through steam agr reactor diagram.

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